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ERIC Number: ED410406
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1996-Aug
Pages: 10
Abstractor: N/A
The Meaning of Being Predominantly Present-Oriented in Middle Age and in Non-Western Context.
Shirai, Toshiaki
This paper describes a study of time orientation and preferences of people in western and nonwestern cultures at various life stages. Data were gathered by means of a literature review and a time orientation questionnaire completed by 1,657 individuals in Belgium and Japan. Findings of the study suggest that the time orientation that enhances motivation can vary according to the context. The future orientation is likely to motivate identity development among adolescents who are in the context of attaining independence. The present orientation is likely to be more motivating among middle-aged people. Cross-cultural analysis indicates that western people show future orientation in the context of an individualistic culture that regards the independence and personal competence whereas eastern people show present orientation in the context of a group-oriented culture. In short, adolescents and western people can be considered predominantly future oriented since they are self-centered and want to control and change their situation, while middle-aged and eastern people could be considered predominantly present oriented since they regard harmony with others and acceptance of life situations as more important. (Contains 40 references.) (KC)
Publication Type: Information Analyses; Reports - Research; Speeches/Meeting Papers
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: Belgium; Japan