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ERIC Number: ED409861
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1997
Pages: 7
Abstractor: N/A
Reference Count: N/A
Gender Stereotypes and Selling Techniques in Television Advertising: Effects on Society.
Pryor, Debra; Knupfer, Nancy Nelson
This paper examines gender messages within television advertisements. Society is shaped by the suggestions of television advertisers who influence consumers' beliefs on how people should look or act, and many of these advertisements perpetuate stereotypes. Any consideration of the influence of gender stereotyping within TV advertising must first examine the stereotypes within television programming and advertising in general. Prime time dramatic programming features between two to three males to every female character. Typically, women are younger than men and depicted as feminine with a focus on beauty and sexual attractiveness. Men, instead, are usually authority figures or models of expertise even when shown at leisure (the outdoors, sports, cars and driving, relaxing, or entertaining at home). These images are often defined by advertisers. Most of the experts and voiceovers in commercials are male. Children's programming and advertising follow the typical adult stereotypes. Children aged two to five view an average of 22,228 commercials per year; by the time a person has reached 40, they have seen up to one million commercials. Over the last 25 years, television has played an increasingly important role in a child's socialization process. There are four types of endorsements that are most likely to affect a child's self-concept: personal enhancement; social status appeals; product usage portrayals; and competitive product appeals. To offset the stereotypes presented by television programming and commercials, it is important to teach television viewing skills. Skills such as identifying explicit and implicit promises, differentiating among verbal, nonverbal, and visual content and their intended effects, recognizing persuasive techniques, and comprehending commonly used vocabulary are important outcomes in learning to evaluate commercials. Recognition of the blatant and more subtle gender messages is the first step toward resisting the persuasive power of gender-stereotyped televised messages. (AEF)
Publication Type: Opinion Papers; Reports - Descriptive; Speeches/Meeting Papers
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A