ERIC Number: ED409744
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1997-Jun
Reference Count: N/A
Chinese Heritage Community Language Schools in the United States. ERIC Digest.
Chao, Theresa Hsu
Approximately 83,000 students are taking Chinese language instruction in 634 Chinese heritage community language schools in the United States. These schools date to 1848 and serve immigrant groups wishing to preserve their heritage and promote children's ethnic identity. Both for-profit and non-profit Chinese language schools exist, the former mostly serving young children and the latter generally operated by parent volunteers and affiliated with ethnic or religious organizations. Some have partially-compensated teachers. Nonprofit schools operate only on weekends or after regular school hours, with funding from tuition and fund-raising. Differences in age, family background, and language competence make student placement difficult. Classes are organized variously as Mandarin Chinese-only, Mandarin as a second language, and Chinese language high school credit classes. Weekend, after-school, and summer programs are offered. Mandarin Chinese language and Chinese culture dominate the curriculum, using instructional materials published in Taiwan or the People's Republic of China. Since 1900 these schools have operated successfully outside the public school system, but links are developing. Some high schools grant credit to students taking classes in the Chinese language schools. In 1994 the Scholastic Assessment Test II in Chinese was introduced. (MSE)
Descriptors: After School Programs, Chinese, Community Programs, Educational Trends, Financial Support, Heritage Education, High Schools, Language Tests, Mandarin Chinese, Parent Participation, Program Administration, Program Design, Second Language Learning, Second Language Programs, Standardized Tests, Student Placement, Summer Programs, Teacher Characteristics, Testing, Transfer Policy, Trend Analysis, Volunteers, Weekend Programs
ERIC/CLL, 1118 22nd Street N.W., Washington, DC 20037.
Publication Type: ERIC Publications; ERIC Digests in Full Text
Education Level: N/A
Sponsor: Office of Educational Research and Improvement (ED), Washington, DC.
Authoring Institution: ERIC Clearinghouse on Languages and Linguistics, Washington, DC.
Identifiers - Location: United States