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ERIC Number: ED407623
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1996-Aug
Pages: 9
Abstractor: N/A
Reference Count: N/A
Impact of Community Violence Exposure on Children's Hope.
Oskin, Deborah L.
Hope has been theorized to be a stable cognitive mindset that develops over time, as children experience success at meeting challenges and in conquering obstacles to their goals (Snyder et al, 1994). To determine the effects of children's violence exposure, both as victims and as witnesses, to children's hope, 99 children living in violent areas of a large southeastern city were interviewed individually in their homes. The children were from 8 to 12 years old and represented grades 1 through 8. Ninety-five percent were African American and poor: median income ranged from $5,000 to $10,000. Results showed a negative relationship between victimization and hope agency for younger children. As levels of victimization increased, hope decreased. Girls may experience victimization differently than boys because they are victimized by different types of violent events. Girls may also use differing emotional responses to victimization, and they may also use different cognitive processes to understand their victimization experiences. Girls tend to generalize their experiences which can lead to diminished coping strategies. Boys tend to see situations as independent of each other. A positive relationship between victimization and hope agency beliefs was found in older children. Research has yet to determine whether females use emotion-focused coping more because they are more likely to be in uncontrollable situations, and whether males use problem-focused coping more because they are more likely to be in controllable situations. (RJM)
Publication Type: Reports - Research; Speeches/Meeting Papers
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A