ERIC Number: ED406504
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1995
Reference Count: N/A
Research on School Effects in Urban Schools. Number 95-12.
Wang, Margaret C.; And Others
This paper characterizes the school effects literature that has been conducted over the past 25 years with a focus on urban elementary and secondary schools. The features of the research studies reviewed are explored, including dependent and independent variables employed, sources of data, research methods used, and the number and direction of student outcomes measured. The overall review is followed by a study of 20 specific studies. In the overall review, results from four approaches are examined; input-output studies, case studies, outlier studies, and process-product studies. Results from the four approaches are surprisingly consistent. Evidence has accumulated that school does influence student outcomes, with the following usually cited: (1) strong instructional leadership; (2) high expectations for all students; (3) clear goals for students' academic and behavioral performance; (4) a safe and orderly school climate; (5) maximization of students' time-on-task; and (6) an academic emphasis. Twenty studies that represent the range of approaches to the study of school effects were then examined in an attempt to illustrate how future studies might be designed. Recommendations made from this analysis are suggested for future research that expands beyond a narrow focus on student achievement as measured by standardized testing. The 20 studies are listed in a bibliography. (Contains 11 tables and 49 references.) (SLD)
Descriptors: Case Studies, Educational Research, Effective Schools Research, Elementary Secondary Education, Instructional Leadership, Outcomes of Education, School Effectiveness, School Role, School Safety, Teacher Expectations of Students, Teaching Methods, Test Use, Time Factors (Learning), Urban Schools
Publication Type: Reports - Evaluative
Education Level: N/A
Sponsor: Office of Educational Research and Improvement (ED), Washington, DC.
Authoring Institution: National Research Center on Education in the Inner Cities, Philadelphia, PA.