ERIC Number: ED406445
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1997-Jan
Norming and Norm-Referenced Test Scores.
Norm-referenced tests yield information regarding a student's performance in comparison to a norm or average of performance by similar students. Norms are statistics that describe the test performance of a well-defined population. The process of constructing norms, called norming, is explored briefly in this paper. Some of the most widely reported norm-referenced test scores are reviewed, and guidelines are provided for their interpretation. Nine steps for conducting a norming study, based on the work of Crocker and Algina (1986), are presented. These are: (1) identify the population of interest; (2) identify the most critical statistics that will be computed for the sample data; (3) decide on the tolerable amount of sampling error for one or more of the statistics in step 2; (4) devise a procedure for drawing a sample from the population of interest; (5) estimate the minimum sample size required to hold the sampling error within the specified limits; (6) draw the sample and collect the data; (7) compute the values of the group statistics of interest and their standard errors; (8) identify the types of normative scores that will be needed and prepare the normative conversion tables; and (9) prepare documentation of the norming procedure and guidelines for interpretation of the norms. Four categories of norm-referenced test scores (percentiles, standard scores, developmental scales, and ratios and quotients) are described. (Contains 17 references.) (Author/SLD)
Publication Type: Reports - Evaluative; Speeches/Meeting Papers
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Grant or Contract Numbers: N/A
Note: Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Southwest Educational Research Association (Austin, TX, January 23-25, 1997).