ERIC Number: ED406248
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1986-Aug
Reference Count: N/A
Education, Ethnicity, and Political Socialization in Pakistan.
Kazi, Aftab A.
Asian Profile, v14 n4 p349-359 Aug 1986
This paper addresses the correlation between educational policies and political conditions as an indicator of socialization in the nation and state building process in Pakistan. Because of the discrepancies between official statements and the level of ethnic conflict, this study seeks to analyze the standard national social studies curriculum for its proportionate representation of diverse Pakistani nationalities, as a concrete indicator to access the socialization process and inequality controversy in that society. The rationale for the national curriculum analysis is that it not only allows for examination of the inequalities of the educational policy, but also could shed light on the existence of inequalities in other socio-economic and political policy areas. This framework analyzes political socialization by considering integrative perceptions, the educational curriculum, and socio-political conditions. The document traces the national curriculum as the texts have changed with every major political change in the government. Four major political eras in the history of Pakistan and its national curriculum are: (1) early establishment era, 1947-58; (2) the military era, 1958-71; (3) the civilian era, 1971-77; and (4) the post civilian and new military era, 1977-present. Culturally appropriate strategies of national development and societal reordering are crucial for an effective state building process in multi-ethnic societies, without which these societies are neither nations nor states, but unstable political units, merely surviving with the use of coercive mechanisms. The Pakistani case suggests that broader participation of all the indigenous nationalities at the socio-economic and cultural level could stabilize the political situation. (DK)
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: Pakistan