ERIC Number: ED405691
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1990-Mar
Variables Important to Learning: A Meta-Review of Reviews of the Research Literature.
Wang, Margaret C.; And Others
This paper reports a comprehensive "meta-review" and synthesis of research on variables related to learning, including both cognitive and affective schooling outcomes. A conceptual framework was developed, encompassing 228 items related to school learning, organized "a priori" into 30 scales within 6 categories ordered roughly from more distal to more proximal factors: (1) state and district variables; (2) out of school contextual variables; (3) school-level variables; (4) student variables; (5) program design variables; and (6) implementation, classroom instruction, and climate variables. Search and selection procedures yielded 179 selected handbook and annual review chapters, commissioned papers, and other authoritative reviews. Content analysis yielded over 3,700 ratings of the strength of influence of the variables on learning. They confirm the primacy of student, classroom, home, and community influences on learning relative to more distal policy variables such as state and district characteristics. They also highlight the importance of metacognition, classroom management, quantity of instruction, classroom interactions, classroom climate, and the peer group. (Contains 204 references.) (Author/DB)
Descriptors: Content Analysis, Educational Assessment, Educational Environment, Educational Objectives, Educational Policy, Elementary Secondary Education, Influences, Instructional Effectiveness, Learning Processes, Meta Analysis, Models, Performance Factors, Program Design, Program Implementation, Student Characteristics, Teacher Student Relationship
Publication Type: Information Analyses
Education Level: N/A
Sponsor: Special Education Programs (ED/OSERS), Washington, DC.
Authoring Institution: Temple Univ., Philadelphia. Center for Research in Human Development and Education.
Note: In: Designing and Evaluating School Learning Environments for Effective Mainstreaming of Special Education Students: Synthesis, Validation, and Dissemination of Research Methods. Final Report; see EC 305 400.