ERIC Number: ED404059
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1996
Reference Count: N/A
Literacy for Women and Their Participation in the Labour Force in Pakistan.
In rural Pakistan, agricultural land is owned by men and they use family labor, including women. Women usually transact no cash from cradle to grave. There is no social support for high achievement in their lives. The illiteracy rate among women is very high, especially in rural areas, where only 7.3 percent of women are literate. Poor underachieving women with only basic education show poor linguistic ability, feelings of rejection, emotional insecurity, poor motivation, and difficulty in adjustment and absorption in society. Some studies report girls have a higher level of achievement motivation than boys but lack opportunities. Sindh Rural Women's Uplift Group engaged 10-15 women on a farm, paid them the same salaries as men, and gave them similar jobs to perform. After 2 years, results show that the women's output exceeded the men's, and the life pattern of the women has changed. Initially, men took their salaries, but the women asserted themselves and are now better clothed and want to send their children to school. The men are becoming more considerate. The educational system needs to be reshaped to respond to rapidly changing socioeconomic and cultural demands, with emphasis on equal education, remedial education, and vocational education. Distance education is a useful way to address the facts that women are kept in seclusion within the boundary walls of the home, coeducation is not allowed, educational facilities are limited in rural areas, and free time is limited. (TD)
Descriptors: Access to Education, Agricultural Laborers, Distance Education, Educational Needs, Elementary Secondary Education, Employed Women, Equal Education, Foreign Countries, Illiteracy, Relevance (Education), Rural Areas, Rural Women, Sex Discrimination, Social Attitudes, Underachievement, Womens Education
Publication Type: Reports - Descriptive; Opinion Papers
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: Sindh Rural Women's Uplift Group, Hyderabad (Pakistan).
Identifiers - Location: Pakistan