ERIC Number: ED400976
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1996
Reference Count: N/A
Three Theories of Cognitive Representation and Their Evaluation Standards of Training Effects.
Tomic, Welko; Kingma, Johannes
The development of cognitive representation is the main theme of three classic theories (Piaget, Bruner, Vygotsky) on how children learn concepts. Piaget considered structural change as a necessary condition for development; Bruner emphasized both internal and external function and the structural changes brought about by function; and Vygotsky stressed the reciprocal relationship between structure and function. While these theories converge to some degree with respect to effectively influencing the development of cognitive representation, they do not agree on evaluation standards for training effectiveness. Piaget and Galperin, a student of Vygotsky, would contend that it is only when stringent criteria for evaluating training effects are met (such as when the child can solve a wide range of transfer problems after training), and when the training results are durable, that one can conclude that the child's representation has changed. Many American training studies deal with specific training effects with only minor transfer and do not investigate the duration of the effect, making it impossible to conclude that representation changes through training. However, replications of long-term training studies using Obuchova's (1966) method--which maintains the same criteria used by Piaget--have shown that cognitive representation does change. The outcomes of training studies conducted by different theoretical schools clarify that one can examine only whether and to what extent cognitive representation is changed when stringent criteria are used to assess the effect of learning. (Contains 55 references.) (Author/KDFB)
Publication Type: Information Analyses
Education Level: N/A
Sponsor: Open Univ., Heerlen (Netherlands).
Authoring Institution: N/A