ERIC Number: ED400664
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1992-Mar-19
Reference Count: N/A
Special Education Costs and Rising School Expenditures: A Review of the Evidence.
Cibulka, James G.; Derlin, Roberta L.
This paper analyzes trends in education expenditures in elementary and secondary schools, especially the extent to which special education costs are responsible for the overall upward expenditure trends. It reports on the limited national data available and on a longitudinal analysis of special education costs in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, from 1982-83 to 1990-91. Analysis of national data over a 4-year period (1982-83 to 1985-86) suggests that aggregate expenditures for special education rose about 22 percent whereas total aggregate expenditures for elementary and secondary education rose only 14 percent. Analysis of the Milwaukee data indicates that during this period total enrollments increased about 10 percent, whereas special education enrollments increased over 25 percent. However, despite the increased enrollment, special education instruction and support costs were 16 percent of total expenditures in 1989-90 compared with 15 percent in 1983-84. Analysis also indicates that beginning in 1987-88, instructional expenditures per pupil for special education actually dropped in constant dollars while those for regular education continued to rise. Among suggested reasons for the discrepancy between the Milwaukee data and the national data are that the big growth years for special education enrollments and program development were in the late 1970s or that special education costs have flattened due to economies of scale. (Contains 17 references.) (DB)
Publication Type: Reports - Research; Speeches/Meeting Papers
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: Wisconsin (Milwaukee)