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ERIC Number: ED400095
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1996-Aug
Pages: 11
Abstractor: N/A
Reference Count: N/A
Human Figure Drawing as a Representative Medium of Perceptual Motor Development among 3- to 5-Year-Old Children.
Numminen, Pirkko; And Others
This study examined characteristics of human figures representing the self as drawn by 3-, 4-, and 5-year-olds and the presence of age or gender differences. A total of 150 children who were selected randomly from day care centers drew themselves on paper with crayons. There were equal numbers of boys and girls in each age group. Human figure drawings were analyzed on a 5-point scale using Saastamoinen's (1993) test battery. Results suggested that there were developmental changes and marked gender differences in the drawings. Over 40 percent of 3-year-old boys' drawing were not recognizable as human; all others had a circle for the head. Eyes appeared as large dots among 4-year-olds and as small dots or lines among 5-year-olds. A mouth appeared as a curved line in 3-year-olds, but was a curved line or "smiling" mouth in 4- and 5-year-olds. Almost all the children omitted ears in their figures. Only 16 percent of the 3-year-olds added a body to their figure; 95 percent of the older girls and 36 percent of the older boys did so. Arms were added to figures at 5 years, with girls more likely to add arms symmetrically and to add fingers. Girls added hair and clothing to their figures at a younger age than did boys. Contains 10 references. (KDFB)
Publication Type: Speeches/Meeting Papers; Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A