ERIC Number: ED394955
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1995-Sep
Toward Bias-Free Teaching: Gender Equity in the Classroom.
Clarken, Rodney H.
This paper discusses inequities and injustices toward women and advocates remedies through education. Practical suggestions based upon expectations theory and the Teacher Expectations and Student Achievement Test (TESA) program offer teachers ways to reduce discrimination and improve achievement in classrooms, especially for those denied an equal opportunity to learn. Teachers directly influence the development of their students. If they know how to teach equitably, care about justice in their classrooms, and teach in the right way, they can affect marvelous change in their students and classrooms. The same opportunities, rights, and curriculum for both men and women of all ages are needed to establish equity in the classroom, but women should be given preference in education as the first educators of the next generation and to redress the imbalance that exists. Teacher expectations of a student affect how they interact, which in turn affects the student's achievement. Expectations are expressed in actions and actions in turn reflect expectations. Fifteen teacher behaviors that affect students and the classroom environment are briefly addressed: equitable distribution of response opportunities, individual helping, latency, delving, high level questioning, affirming/correcting, praising, reasons for praise, listening, accepting feelings, proximity, courtesy, positive personal interest, touching, and desisting. (NAV)
Descriptors: Behavior Patterns, Classroom Communication, Classroom Environment, Elementary Secondary Education, Females, Gender Issues, Higher Education, Leadership Responsibility, Sex Bias, Sex Discrimination, Teacher Expectations of Students, Teacher Responsibility, Teacher Role, Teacher Student Relationship, Teaching (Occupation)
Publication Type: Speeches/Meeting Papers; Opinion Papers
Education Level: N/A
Audience: Teachers; Practitioners
Authoring Institution: N/A
Note: Paper presented at the United Nations Non-Governmental Forum on Women (Beijing, China, August 31-September 8, 1995).