ERIC Number: ED394444
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1994
Student Learning Outside the Classroom: Transcending Artificial Boundaries. ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report No. 8.
Kuh, George D.; And Others
This review of the literature considers three issues: how out-of-class experiences of undergraduates contribute to the goals of higher education and valued outcomes; the institutional conditions that encourage students to use out-of-class time in educationally purposeful ways; and the role of all members of the campus community to foster such learning. The report first describes the methodology involved in identifying the relevant literature and the outcomes framework used to analyze it. The link between involvement in out-of-class activities and educational attainment is examined next. Then, the out-of-class experiences associated with persistence and various categories of outcomes are discussed. Nine conditions are identified that characterize powerful out-of-class environments: (1) clear, coherent, and consistently expressed educational purposes; (2) an institutional philosophy that embraces a holistic view of talent development; (3) complementary institutional policies and practices congruent with students' characteristics and needs; (4) high, clear expectations for student performance; (5) use of effective teaching approaches; (6) systematic assessment of institutional practices and student performance; (7) ample opportunities for student involvement in educationally purposeful out-of-class activities; (8) human scale settings characterized by ethics of membership and care; and (9) an ethos of learning that pervades all aspects of the institution. The report concludes with implications for governing board members, presidents, academic administrators, student affairs administrators, faculty, and students. (Contains approximately 330 references.) (DB)
Descriptors: Academic Persistence, College Outcomes Assessment, Educational Environment, Educational Objectives, Experiential Learning, Extracurricular Activities, Higher Education, Organizational Climate, Student Development, Student Experience, Student Participation, Student School Relationship
ERIC Clearinghouse on Higher Education, One Dupont Circle, N.W., Suite 630, Washington, DC 20036-1183 ($18 plus $3.75 postage).
Publication Type: ERIC Publications
Education Level: N/A
Sponsor: Office of Educational Research and Improvement (ED), Washington, DC.
Authoring Institution: Association for the Study of Higher Education.; ERIC Clearinghouse on Higher Education, Washington, DC.; George Washington Univ., Washington, DC. Graduate School of Education and Human Development.
Grant or Contract Numbers: N/A
Note: For a digest of this report, see HE 029 137.