ERIC Number: ED393026
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1994-Mar-3
The Impact of Early Grade Retention on the Academic Achievement and Self-Esteem of Seventh and Eighth Grade Students.
Retention has been the answer to the problem of what to do with students who are unprepared for the academic and social demands of the next grade. Studies contend that children view retention as punishment and experience emotions such as fear, anger, and sadness when not promoted. Retention or nonpromotion can be defined as the practice of requiring a child to repeat a particular grade or requiring a child of appropriate chronological age to delay entry to kindergarten or first grade. This study (n=36) was designed to investigate the long-term impact of being retained in kindergarten or first grade on seventh and eighth grade students. The hypothesis was that retained students would score significantly lower than their nonretained peers on academic and self-esteem measures. Academic achievement was measured by the Comprehensive Tests of Basic Skills (CTBS) and self-esteem was measured by the Self-Esteem Inventory School Form. Results supported the hypothesis that retained students had significantly lower academic achievement and self-esteem scores that the promoted pupils. Contains 12 references. (JBJ)
Publication Type: Speeches/Meeting Papers; Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Note: Paper presented at the Annual Convention of the National Association of School Psychologists (26th, Seattle, WA, March 1-5, 1994). Study completed in partial fulfillment for Master's of Science degree, California State University, Fresno.