ERIC Number: ED392581
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1995-Nov
On Gender Targeting of Public Transfers.
Appleton, Simon; Collier, Paul
This chapter discusses the benefits and feasibility of targeting public resources and services to females. An overview of gender differences in welfare in various countries examines household expenditures, food consumption, mortality, health care, morbidity, education, and leisure, and finds few generalizations across countries. However, there is evidence of significant female disadvantage in South Asia in terms of food consumption and related health indicators, and the level of female education is significantly lower than that of men in many developing countries. Although directly increasing female income may partially offset female disadvantage, generalized gender-based transfers present problems: (1) they are very indiscriminate; (2) women may not retain control over income received; and (3) other remedies may better address the causes of female disadvantage. A more specific policy response may involve gender targeting of particular government services. Gender targeting of education has been adopted by some developing countries and is receiving favorable attention from external funding agencies. Education raises women's personal income; cannot be directly appropriated by other household members; benefits children, particularly in the area of child health; and tends to reduce fertility. Other government services that may be targeted by gender include family planning services, health and nutrition interventions, and agricultural extension services. Other types of targeted intervention may also be highly cost-effective, including reforming the content of education and strengthening female property rights. Contains 102 references. (SV)
Descriptors: Access to Education, Developing Nations, Disadvantaged, Elementary Secondary Education, Females, Foreign Countries, Public Policy, Resource Allocation, Rural Extension, Sex Differences, Sex Fairness, Well Being, Womens Education
The World Bank, 1818 H St., N.W., Washington, DC 20433 (Book: ISBN-0-8018-5255-2, $69.95).
Publication Type: Information Analyses
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: World Bank, Washington, DC.
Grant or Contract Numbers: N/A
Note: In: van de Walle, Dominique, Ed., and Nead, Kimberly, Ed. "Public Spending and the Poor: Theory and Evidence." Baltimore, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1995. Chapter 19 (p555-581).