ERIC Number: ED390338
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1995
Reference Count: N/A
Beyond Critical Thinking: Teaching the Thinking Skills Necessary to Academic and Professional Success. The Freshman Year Experience. Monograph Series Number 17.
Daly, William T.
In the light of significant changes in contemporary society that demand high level thinking skills of professional workers, this monograph explores the nature of independent thinking and principles of teaching independent thinking, particularly to college freshmen. A section on independent thinking outlines abstract, creative, and systematic thinking and requirements for precise communication of thought processes. The next section discusses how unnatural the open-mindedness and uncertainty that independent thinking requires is to the human brain and argues that innate human thinking abilities require some restraint and shaping in order to acquire independent thinking skills. General principles of teaching independent thinking skills are outlined in the following section with the observation that, if independent thinking is somewhat unnatural to the human brain and its development, instructors may have to consider instructional approaches which are more directive and more demanding of teacher time and effort. Some pedagogical approaches suggested include requiring constant practice in the construction and use of abstract concepts and requiring a great deal of expository/argumentative writing. A section on programs to teach thinking skills reviews thinking-across-the-curriculum, thinking-across-the-college-school-divide, and faculty retraining approaches. A final section discusses teaching abstract thinking, creative thinking, systematic thinking, and the precise communication of thought to college freshmen, specifically. (Contains 32 references.) (JB)
Descriptors: Abstract Reasoning, Cognitive Development, Cognitive Processes, College Freshmen, College Instruction, Communication Skills, Creative Thinking, Critical Thinking, Expository Writing, Higher Education, Logical Thinking, Skill Development, Teaching Methods, Thinking Skills
National Resource Center for the Freshman Year Experience and Students in Transition, University 101, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 ($15).
Publication Type: Opinion Papers; Guides - Non-Classroom
Education Level: N/A
Audience: Teachers; Practitioners
Authoring Institution: South Carolina Univ., Columbia. National Resource Center for the Freshman Year Experience and Students in Transition.