ERIC Number: ED389139
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1995-Apr
Educational Implications of an Interactive Model of Reading Disability.
Spear-Swerling, Louise; Sternberg, Robert J.
This paper presents a cognitive model of reading disability that looks at how the disability develops across the age and grade span and how it relates to the process of reading acquisition in normal-achieving readers. The model uses the metaphor of a "road map," which identifies the normal road to proficient reading through six phases: visual-cue word recognition, phonetic-cue word recognition, controlled word recognition, automatic word recognition, strategic reading, and proficient reading. Reading disability is conceptualized as involving departures from the normal path in one or more of the first four phases, leading to four possible patterns of reading disability (nonalphabetic, compensatory, nonautomatic, and delayed), which may or may not involve the same underlying causal deficit. The model also emphasizes that reading disability always involves interaction between the child's intrinsic cognitive characteristics and environmental influences. Features which distinguish this model from others include its relatively broad scope, its developmental nature, and its interactive view. Educational implications include recognition that the many cognitive deficits seen in reading disability change developmentally; that the measures most useful in identifying the disability vary with its pattern; that all children benefit from a combination of code-oriented and meaning-oriented approaches to reading instruction; that early identification of reading disability is important because of the cognitive and motivational consequences of longstanding reading failure; and that there is little scientific support for the practice of identifying poor readers based upon IQ-achievement discrepancies. (Contains 16 references.) (DB)
Publication Type: Opinion Papers; Speeches/Meeting Papers
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Note: Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (San Francisco, CA, April 18-25, 1995).