ERIC Number: ED388294
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1994
Multimedia Design Principles for Constructing Prescriptive, Democratic and Cybernetic Learning Environments.
Schwier, Richard A.
The quality of multimedia-based interaction is more the product of the way instruction is designed, and less the result of the system on which it is delivered. To fully exploit the capabilities of more powerful instructional technologies, designers must also reexamine the assumptions and expand the strategies employed in instructional design. Prescriptive, democratic and cybernetic learning environments have been identified for individualized instruction and have subsequently been adapted to interactive multimedia learning. Prescriptive environments specify learning objectives and the instructional system is used as a primary delivery medium. In most cases, it is the learner's role to receive and master the given content. Democratic environments emphasize the learner's role in defining what is learned, how it is learned, and the sequence in which it is learned; navigation, motivation and access supersede objectives and evaluation. In cybernetic environments, a complete system allows the learner to interact freely and naturally with the instruction in a process of mutual exchange. Control is negotiated but decisions are left in the hands of the learner. This paper applies five instructional design issues to each of these environments--control, practice, feedback, cooperation, and metacognition--and considers how each of these notions might be expressed in difference multimedia environments. (Contains 19 references.) (AEF)
Publication Type: Reports - Descriptive; Speeches/Meeting Papers
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Note: In: Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia, 1994. Proceedings of ED-MEDIA 94--World Conference on Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia (Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, June 25-30, 1994); see IR 017 359.