ERIC Number: ED385808
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1995-Jun
The Effects of Performance Feedback, Depression, and Gender on Self-Evaluations.
Beyer, Sylvia; Davanis, Michele
In an experiment to test whether gender differences in self-evaluation biases exist, 264 female and 174 male students were used. Participants were placed in mixed-sex groups, ranging from 2-10 people. Test anonymity and non-competitiveness were emphasized to minimize self-presentation concerns. Three different measures of accuracy/bias were employed: (1) accuracy of post-test self-evaluations; (2) degree of calibration for individual questions; and (3) response bias. As hypothesized, for the masculine gender-typed test significant gender differences for all three kinds of bias were found: (1) women's post-test self-evaluations were inaccurately low; (2) their confidence statements for individual questions on a test were less well-calibrated than men's; and (3) their response bias was more conservative than men's. None of these gender differences were found for feminine and neutral tests. As hypothesized, strong self-consistency tendencies were found. Expectancies emerged as an important predictor of post-test self-evaluations for both genders and could account for women's inaccurately low self-evaluations. How these biases might negatively affect women's self-confidence and mental health and curtail women's participation in masculine gender-typed domains is discussed. Five graphs and charts displaying gender-differentiated results are appended. Contains 43 references. (SR)
Publication Type: Speeches/Meeting Papers; Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Note: Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Psychological Association (103rd, New York, NY, August 11-15, 1995).