ERIC Number: ED384153
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1995
Automatic and Effortful Memory Processing by Students with and without Mental Retardation.
Thomas, Suzanne B.
Florida Educational Research Council Research Bulletin, v26 n3 Spr 1995
Memory and information processing were studied with public school students, aged 10-15, who had educable mental handicaps (n=60), trainable mental handicaps (n=60), and no mental handicaps (n=60). Study participants completed a picture recall and relocation test, in order to determine if differences existed between the groups based on developmental level and whether information was processed automatically or effortfully. Within each developmental level, students were randomly assigned to one of three encoding conditions: nonsemantic, semantic, or clustered. It was found that students without mental retardation recalled and relocated more pictures correctly than did students with educable mental handicaps, who recalled and relocated more than did students with trainable mental handicaps. Significant interaction effects resulted when retention interval was included in the analysis. The results suggest that both automatic and effortful memory processing are influenced by developmental level and conditions under which new information is received. The encoding instructions did not alter relocation performance dependent on developmental level, however. It is concluded that instructions given to students and their developmental level will affect the amount of information retained. Implications for teaching are suggested. (Contains 38 references.) (SW)
Descriptors: Cognitive Processes, Encoding (Psychology), Intermediate Grades, Junior High Schools, Learning Processes, Memory, Mild Mental Retardation, Moderate Mental Retardation, Recall (Psychology), Retention (Psychology), Severity (of Disability), Visual Stimuli
FERC, Inc., P.O. Box 506, Sanibel, FL 33957 ($4 single copy; $15 annual subscription; 10% discount on 5 or more).
Publication Type: Collected Works - Serials
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: Florida Educational Research Council, Inc., Sanibel.