ERIC Number: ED382085
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1993
Reference Count: N/A
Developing Our Future: American R&D in International Perspective.
El-Khawas, Elaine; Anderson, Charles J.
Research Briefs, v4 n7 1993
This report offers a profile of the financial and human resources devoted to research and development (R&D) in the United States and other nations, focusing on the role of universities in carrying out R&D and in supporting the development of scientific and technical personnel needed for a competitive economy. It found that R&D expenditures in the United States in 1992 were an estimated $157.4 billion, making it the leading nation in total R&D expenditures. As a percentage of the nation's economy, however, U.S. R&D expenditures lag behind those of Japan and Germany. R&D expenditures represented 2.65 percent of U.S. gross domestic product (GDP) in 1990, compared with 3.07 percent for Japan and 2.81 percent for Germany. Only 16 percent of all R&D spending is for basic research, while 23 percent is for applied research and 61 percent is for developmental activities to produce useful products from the research findings. Although academic institutions conducted only 15 percent of all R&D activity in the United States in 1992, they conducted 49 percent of all basic research. (MDM)
Descriptors: Cross Cultural Studies, Economic Development, Engineers, Federal Programs, Foreign Countries, Government Role, Higher Education, Institutional Role, Research, Research and Development, Research Utilization, Scientists, Technology, Universities
American Council on Education, One Dupont Circle, Suite 800, Washington, DC 20036 (single copy $10; 8-issue annual subscription $58).
Publication Type: Collected Works - Serials
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: American Council on Education, Washington, DC. Div. of Policy Analysis and Research.
Identifiers - Location: Germany; Japan; United States