ERIC Number: ED381436
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1994
The "American Dilemma": Individualism, Diversity, Pluralism, and American Society.
Timm, Joan Thrower
This paper posits that Americans have three frames of reference (individualism, diversity of origin, and pluralism) that impact values and actions. Individualism includes understanding relationships with others. The paper identifies and describes five different types of individualism in U.S. culture: (1) Protestant; (2) republican; (3) utilitarian; (4) expressive; and (5) economic. Diversity of origin is identified by horizontal diversity (race, ethnicity, and gender) and vertical diversity (socioeconomic status and educational levels occurring in all horizontal groups). Pluralism refers to the holding of two or more viewpoints simultaneously. Forms of pluralism include: (1) coexistence; (2) cooperation; (3) co-explorers; and (4) co-enjoyment. These forms of pluralism may be used in multicultural education programs to enable students to learn an ethics of caring and hope for the country's future. (EH)
Publication Type: Speeches/Meeting Papers; Reports - Descriptive
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Note: Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Mid-Western Educational Research Association (Chicago, IL, October 13, 1994).