ERIC Number: ED378082
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1989-May
Reference Count: N/A
Determinants of Women's Education in the Middle East and North Africa: Illustrations from Seven Countries. PHREE Background Paper Series.
Despite considerable progress by Middle Eastern and North African countries in improving opportunities for women to access and attain education at all levels, much remains to be done. This report focuses on three sets of highly inter-related determinants of access, achievement, and outcome--macro-level societal determinants, school characteristics, and family background characteristics--in seven representative Middle Eastern and North African countries: Egypt, Tunisia, Morocco, Jordan, Turkey, Saudi Arabia, and Kuwait. The research shows that the level of economic development of a country and the distribution of income have a much stronger impact than do Islamic and cultural values, while the size and growth rate of the population can place a major strain on school facility and resources. Sex-role stereotypes and the division of labor in the home and marketplace mean that expected returns from female education do not appear to justify the costs. Free, compulsory education and open admissions have led to major improvements in female education but have no guaranteed equity. Socio-economic background, parental education, family size, and family socialization exert a strong influence on educational attainment. Other key factors are a family's ability to cover the costs of education and forego the labor of the daughters. The availability and accessibility of schools and the quality of their programs and human resources have significant effects on female educational enrollment, continuation, quality, and outcome. All-girls schools have played a positive role under certain conditions. Because of the importance of female teachers and administrators as potential role models, their high rate of attrition and absenteeism calls for careful solutions. Contains 104 references. (Author)
Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Access to Education, Elementary Secondary Education, Females, Foreign Countries, Higher Education, Outcomes of Education, Sex Role, Sex Stereotypes, Single Sex Schools, Womens Education
The World Bank, Education and Employment Division, Population and Human Resources Department, 1818 H Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20433.
Publication Type: Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: World Bank, Washington, DC.
Identifiers - Location: Africa; Egypt; Jordan; Kuwait; Morocco; Saudi Arabia; Tunisia; Turkey