ERIC Number: ED372474
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1994-Apr
Two National Studies of Women Superintendents.
Grady, Marilyn L.; Wesson, Linda Hampton
The literature concerning the superintendency is based on the experiences of men. This paper presents findings of the two studies that examined women superintendents. The first, a pilot study, sought to determine whether women superintendents used leadership qualities that fit a new paradigm for leadership. It also sought to determine if differences existed between urban and rural female superintendents' leadership qualities. Data were obtained from a survey of 346 women superintendents in 29 states. A total of 263 responses were received, a 76 percent response rate. Telephone interviews were also conducted with 21 urban and 30 rural survey respondents. The most striking conclusion was that both rural and urban superintendents possessed similar leadership qualities, and those qualities fit a new paradigm for leadership. Both groups received job satisfaction by bringing about change, reaching out to others, and creating a nurturing environment. They had been hired by school boards to act as change agents, which was also one of their primary strengths. The second study used the same methodology as the first; in addition, however, it used the Leadership Practices Inventory-Self instrument to measure the extent to which the female superintendents adopted 5 leadership practices and 10 behaviors. Findings indicate that most of the urban and rural superintendents were hired to be change agents. Both groups placed a primary value on human relationships in the organization, and used leadership practices that were characteristic of the new paradigm of transformational leadership. One table is included. (Contains 30 references.) (LMI)
Publication Type: Speeches/Meeting Papers; Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Note: Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (New Orleans, LA, April 4-8, 1994).