ERIC Number: ED372081
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1993-Nov
Reference Count: N/A
Specifications for the Design of Problem-Solving Assessments in Science. Project 2.1. Designs for Assessing Individual and Group Problem-Solving.
This report describes a methodology for increasing the validity and reliability of inferences made about the problem-solving ability of science students that is based on performance on different kinds of tests. The generalizable cognitive components of problem solving that might be targeted by assessment are described, and specifications are presented for designing multiple-choice, open-ended, and hands-on assessments of problem solving. Some prototype assessments that implement the specifications in the domain of chemistry are presented as examples. Three comprehensive models of the components of problem solving are reviewed to illustrate the range of variables involved and to give a basis for selecting a subset of variables to be targeted by assessment. The specificity of definition of the cognitive constructs of interest in assessment goes beyond vague ideas of understanding and reasoning to identification of specific knowledge types and the links among them and the specific aspects of higher order thinking that have been found to influence problem solving. Nine figures and 17 examples illustrate the discussion. (Contains 138 references.) (SLD)
Publication Type: Information Analyses; Reports - Evaluative
Education Level: N/A
Sponsor: Office of Educational Research and Improvement (ED), Washington, DC.
Authoring Institution: National Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing, Los Angeles, CA.