ERIC Number: ED371215
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1994
Public Investments in Training: Perspectives on Macro-Level Structural Issues and Micro-Level Delivery Systems. EQW Working Papers WP24.
Cascio, Wayne F.
Training issues can be examined from at least two perspectives: the structural level (macro-level) and the micro-level. Structural issues in the delivery of training include the following: absent or uneven corporate commitment, inadequate expenditures by businesses, degrees awarded by schools that do not guarantee skill mastery, poaching of trained workers, accounting rules that require training be treated as an expense and not an investment, inadequate government funding for retraining displaced workers, need for closer employer-school ties, and need for help from organized labor. Issues in the design, delivery, and evaluation of training efforts include an emphasis on the techniques and methods of training rather than the content and little emphasis on assessment of training outcomes. Training is critical to the implementation of four competitive strategies that firms use to compete for business in the marketplace and to gain competitive advantage--speed strategy, innovation strategy, quality-enhancement strategy, and cost-reduction strategy. Certain ground rules can enhance the likelihood that organizations and individuals will benefit from training. Before training, needs analysis should be done at multiple levels. During training, the objective is to select a training technique that accurately matches demonstrated training needs and to deliver training in a manner that maximizes learning, retention, and transfer. After training, long-term effects must be evaluated. (Contains 35 endnotes.) (YLB)
Descriptors: Corporate Education, Corporate Support, Delivery Systems, Evaluation Methods, Human Resources, Instructional Effectiveness, Job Training, Labor Force Development, Needs Assessment, Outcomes of Education, Personnel Management, Postsecondary Education, Program Content, Program Effectiveness, Program Evaluation, School Business Relationship, Secondary Education, Teaching Methods, Vocational Education
Publication Type: Information Analyses
Education Level: N/A
Sponsor: Office of Educational Research and Improvement (ED), Washington, DC.
Authoring Institution: National Center on the Educational Quality of the Workforce, Philadelphia, PA.