ERIC Number: ED370881
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1994-Mar
Reference Count: N/A
The Essential Elements of Cooperative Learning in the Classroom. ERIC Digest.
Stahl, Robert J.
In successfully establishing and having students complete group tasks within a cooperative learning framework, 14 essential elements must be present. The elements necessary for cooperative learning are: (1) a clear set of specific student learning outcome objectives; (2) all students in the group accept the targeted outcome; (3) clear and complete set of task-completion directions or instructions; (4) heterogeneous groups; (5) equal opportunity for success; (6) positive interdependence; (7) face-to-face interaction; (8) positive social interaction behaviors and attitudes; (9) access to information students must learn; (10) opportunities to complete required information processing tasks; (11) sufficient time spent learning; (12) individual accountability; (13) public recognition and rewards for group academic success; and (14) post-group reflection on within-group behaviors. Although all of the elements do not have to be used every time the teacher assigns students to work in groups, teachers who fail to include the requirements report far more difficulties with students and group activities and far less student achievement gains than do teachers who meet them. (Author/CK)
Publication Type: ERIC Publications; Guides - Non-Classroom; ERIC Digests in Full Text
Education Level: N/A
Audience: Researchers; Teachers; Practitioners
Sponsor: Office of Educational Research and Improvement (ED), Washington, DC.
Authoring Institution: ERIC Clearinghouse for Social Studies/Social Science Education, Bloomington, IN.