ERIC Number: ED370444
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1994-Feb-19
The Development and Study of Hmong Literacy: Ensuring the Future and Preserving the Past.
Kang, Hee-Won; And Others
A study of Hmong adult immigrants in a Hmong literacy class investigated four aspects of their learning behaviors: specific behaviors manifested in the literacy classroom; overt learning strategies used for literacy learning; major motivations; and specific uses for Hmong literacy skills. Data were gathered through observation, interviews, videotaping, and a survey of Hmong literacy use. Subjects were members of one class, varying in number, age, and gender at each meeting, and for the survey, a random sampling of 92 individuals from a Hmong telephone book. Results indicate consistent and related patterns of behavior influenced by Hmong cultural background and participants' existing knowledge. Observed behaviors included constant interaction for cooperative learning, great concern with exactness and clarification, expressions of lack of knowledge or ability just before completion of task, laughter, reluctance to perform in front of others, reluctance to interact with the teacher or make eye contact, and reading and speaking aloud while working. The most consistent learning strategy observed or reported was use of imagery as a memory aid. Primary motivation for Hmong literacy study was maintenance and preservation of culture. Others were communication with relatives and friends and teaching Hmong to their children. Some effective teacher behaviors were also observed. Contains 8 references. (MSE) (Adjunct ERIC Clearinghouse on Literacy Education)
Descriptors: Adult Learning, Adult Literacy, Adult Students, Behavior Patterns, Hmong, Hmong People, Immigrants, Learning Motivation, Learning Processes, Literacy Education, Native Language Instruction, Refugees, Sociocultural Patterns, Student Characteristics, Student Motivation, Uncommonly Taught Languages
Publication Type: Reports - Descriptive; Speeches/Meeting Papers
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Grant or Contract Numbers: N/A
Note: Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the National Association for Bilingual Education (Los Angeles, CA, February 15-19, 1994).