ERIC Number: ED369178
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1994-Mar
Reference Count: N/A
History of Educational Supervision: Proposals and Prospects.
Public school supervision in the United States has been historically influenced by its roots in western Europe and unique characteristics of the American educational system. Much history of school supervision describes it as a series of disjointed and unrelated events. And supervision appears to simply reflect greater social and educational movements. No clear theme has emerged in the historical study of supervision. A review of research on supervision history reveals that little has been done in dissertations, books, and articles. While the interaction of broad social and intellectual movements has had a role in the history of supervision, supervisors were also active members. They supported business-like management concepts and directed resources to further their own professional interests. There have also been conflicts between the historical roots of supervision in bureaucracy and newer ideas of professionalism. The history of supervision is marked by seven models: inspection, efficiency, democratic, scientific, leadership, clinical, and changing concepts. Supervision was originally inspectional and later redefined as an efficient, authoritative, and managerial function. School-based management and peer coaching are attempts to use democratic ideals to overcome the bureaucratic history of supervision. Footnotes are included. (JPT)
Publication Type: Speeches/Meeting Papers; Information Analyses
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Note: Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Council of Professors of Instructional Supervision (Chicago, IL, March 1994).