ERIC Number: ED368956
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1994
Problems in Encoding and Retrieval Encountered by Non-traditional Students.
Caron, Stephen F.
Various learning difficulties are encountered by nontraditional students. Many are the result of problems in encoding (learning) of data, as well as retrieval of that information when needed. A review of literature showed that nontraditional students can learn, although it may take extra effort on their part to regain their skills in cognitive processing, learning, and memorization. Additional time for processing information, however, may result in greater short-term and long-term gains, and prior vocabulary knowledge may be helpful to nontraditional students. Universities can help to meet the needs of nontraditional students by establishing support groups and holding seminars for them. The literature also contains studies showing that older adults have significantly slower retrieval of information rates. The literature also shows that the use of mnemonic strategies can help older adults to improve their memory skills, as can paraphrasing. The RARE ("Review, Answer, Read, Express") and the SQ3R ("Survey, Question, Read, Recite, Review") methods may be helpful for older as well as younger learners. Based on the literature reviewed, the conclusion was reached that both decay and disuse hinder the encoding and the retrieval of information, but that persistence and hard work can help nontraditional students succeed. Universities could help such students by establishing courses to help them polish study skills and overcome deficits in subject areas, such as mathematics or language skills. (Contains 10 references.) (KC)
Publication Type: Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A