ERIC Number: ED368941
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1994-Mar
What Do Unions Do for Women? Research-in-Brief.
Braunstein, Jill; And Others
Although union membership has been declining overall, the number of women union members continues to increase. Currently, 37 percent of union membership are women. The proportion of women workers who are union members increased from 16.3 percent in 1965 to 19.3 percent in 1975 and fell to 14 percent in 1990; 7.4 million women were represented by unions in 1992. In contrast, the proportion of male workers in unions fell from 39 percent in 1965 to 22 percent in 1990; 11 million men were represented by unions in 1992. Unionization has increased in female-dominated professions such as teaching, nursing, and public sector occupations, as well as among better educated and higher-wage women. Women in unions are predominantly white collar workers in service industries and are more likely to be college graduates than men in unions. Union membership or coverage by a collective bargaining agreement is associated with higher wages for women. The union wage premium for minority women is about 45 percent. Unions increase wages more at the low end than at the high end of income distribution. The pay gap between male and female workers in a unionized work force is smaller than in a nonunionized work force. Unionized women earn 75 cents for every dollar earned by unionized men; nonunionized women earn 68 cents for every dollar earned by unionized men. Unionized women have twice as many years on the job as nonunion workers. Unions increase tenure more for low-wage women than for high-wage women. (SK)
Publication Type: Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Sponsor: Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.
Authoring Institution: Institute for Women's Policy Research, Washington, DC.
Note: For the full report, see ED 367 827.