ERIC Number: ED368618
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1991
Reference Count: N/A
What Is Higher Order Thinking in Art and Music? (Another View). NAEA Advisory.
This document augments an earlier issue of the NAEA Advisory that reported on studies done by researcher Wanda May on understanding and critical thinking in art and music at the elementary level. The topics of May's research in that earlier publication encompassed: (1) differences between creative and critical thinking; (2) higher order processes; (3) discipline boundaries; (4) current criticisms; (5) what is the content of art and music; and (6) developmental stages. There are, however, additional areas of May's research that were not reported, and these concerned curriculum trends in and major theoretical orientations toward art. May identified four major currents of curriculum thought that dominate themes in public education: (1) focus on subject matter (disciplinary knowledge); (2) focus on learners; (3) focus on social efficiency; and (4) focus on social reconstruction. Based on an informed awareness of these general curriculum interests, May concluded that the goals and practices in art and music can be better understood. Educational goals develop from the expectations of society. May identified four families of aesthetic theory as orientations toward art: (1) mimetic; (2) pragmatic; (3) expressive; and (4) objective. May cross-referenced the primary relationships of the four families of theoretical orientation to the four major curriculum interests. May's findings suggest that children can perceive qualities of art and musical forms before they are able to produce such qualities in their own compositions. Most children enjoy music and art appreciation activities as well as creating art and music. This document suggests that May's correlation of education philosophy and aesthetic orientation is of particular value, as is the use of significant research to help guide art teachers toward greater emphasis on aesthetic perception and inquiry, historical awareness, and cultural concepts. (DK)
Descriptors: Art Education, Critical Thinking, Educational Research, Elementary Education, Elementary School Curriculum, Music Education
National Art Education Association, 1916 Association Dr., Reston, VA 22091-1590.
Publication Type: Collected Works - Serials; Opinion Papers; Guides - Non-Classroom
Education Level: N/A
Audience: Teachers; Practitioners
Authoring Institution: National Art Education Association, Reston, VA.