ERIC Number: ED366660
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1992-Jun
Reference Count: N/A
Learning Processes and Learning Outcomes.
Shute, Valerie J.
This paper summarizes our present knowledge and understanding of the processes and outcomes of learning. The basic idea about learning is that the outcomes of learning (e.g., propositional knowledge, procedural skills, and mental models) reflect differences in learning processes (e.g., encoding skills, attention allocation, and hypothesis generation). Additionally, learning outcomes reflect differences in conative processes, knowledge structures, and metacognitive skills, mediated by the learning processes. Against the background of a brief historical introduction, this article presents a research-based overview of the major categories of educationally relevant learning outcomes and of the underlying acquisition processes. In this perspective, different learning environments are discussed such as learning by direct instruction, drill and practice, and discovery. Finally, implications for the design of computerized instructional environments are indicated. (Contains 9 figures and 83 references.) (Author)
Descriptors: Associative Learning, Attention, Cognitive Processes, Computer Assisted Instruction, Drills (Practice), Educational Environment, Encoding (Psychology), Induction, Instructional Design, Instructional Effectiveness, Interaction, Knowledge Level, Learning Processes, Metacognition, Models, Outcomes of Education
Publication Type: Information Analyses
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: Armstrong Lab, Brooks AFB, TX. Human Resources Directorate.