ERIC Number: ED364564
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1992-Jun
Reference Count: N/A
If Practice Makes Perfect, What Does Less Practice Make? Interim Technical Paper for Period March 1991-March 1992.
Shute, Valerie J.; Gawlick-Grendell, Lisa A.
This research examines the subject of practice and transfer effects using an intelligent tutoring system (ITS) teaching novel knowledge and skills (i.e., flight engineering). Previous research has shown that when more time is spent exercising new cognitive skills, performance is improved and the cognitive load is reduced. Other research has demonstrated that when the number or variety of example problems is small, learning tends to be rapid, but transfer tends to be weak. The purpose of this research was to test these ideas in a controlled setting using an ITS that was manipulated to yield 2 contrasting learning environments: "extended" (12 problems per problem set), and "constrained" (3 problems per problem set). Subjects were 356 male and female adult high school graduates without any experience in flight engineering. The environments differed only in the number of practice problems requiring solution in the various problem sets. Results show that while subjects in the constrained environment completed the curriculum significantly faster than did subjects in the extended version, there were no differences between conditions on any of the outcome measures. But when the data were examined across problem sets, latency and error-type differences between the two groups were found. Three figures and one table present study findings. (Contains 8 references.) (Author/SLD)
Publication Type: Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Sponsor: Armstrong Lab, Brooks AFB, TX. Human Resources Directorate.
Authoring Institution: OAO Corp., San Antonio, TX.