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ERIC Number: ED363785
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1993-Dec
Pages: 11
Abstractor: N/A
Reference Count: N/A
Houle's Typology: Time for Reconsideration.
Gordon, Howard R. D.
According to Houle's 1961 typology, adult learners may be classified as being primarily goal-oriented, activity-oriented, or learning-oriented learners. Since 1961, society has moved from an industrial age to a post-technological era of information and service. In view of the extensive social changes that have occurred since 1961, Houle's typology was reviewed to determine whether it still remains valid in today's social context. In 1983, Boshier and Collins used a "tree" approach to test the veracity of Houle's typology with a large database representing many adults, programs, and instructional settings. They determined that the goal and learning orientations described by Houle were reasonably clear but that activity-orientation is actually much more complex than Houle envisaged and is instead a forced aggregate of social stimulation, social contact, external expectations, and community service items. These findings, coupled with other literature on motivational research, indicate that although Houle's typology was indeed the stepping stone for motivational orientation research, the vast unforeseen changes that have taken place in society since its development demand that the typology's relevance to today's motivational orientations of adult education participants be questioned. (Contains 12 references.) (MN)
Publication Type: Speeches/Meeting Papers; Opinion Papers
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A