ERIC Number: ED363573
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1991
Reference Count: N/A
Critical Thinking and Education for Democracy. Resource Publication Series 4 No. 2.
A discussion of literature in critical thinking and education for democracy promotes critical thinking as one of the most reasonable educational tools to prepare students for participation in a democracy. The theories of Amy Gutmann, Jurgen Habermas, and Matthew Lipman offer insights into the various approaches to critical thinking and education for democracy. Lipman's analyses highlight 6 key elements in critical thinking: (1) skillful thinking; (2) responsible thinking; (3) judgment; (4) criteria; (5) self-correction; and (6) sensitivity to context. These six aspects must be seen against two additional commitments, central to Lipman's thought: critical thinking is dialogical, and critical thinking discussions are best carried out within a community of inquiry. Critical thinking is one model of education for democracy; others are: (1) exemplary models; (2) citizenship education; (3) values clarification; (4) cooperative education; (5) developmentalist theories (e.g., Kohlberg's theory on the development of moral reasoning); (6) the just community; (7) and participation in school governance. As shown by contrast to these other approaches, the discussion here supports critical thinking as among the most reasonable educational tools for developing rational deliberation relevant to democratic education. Contains 55 references. (IAH)
Publication Type: Information Analyses; Reports - Descriptive
Education Level: N/A
Audience: Teachers; Practitioners
Authoring Institution: Montclair State Coll., Upper Montclair, NJ. Inst. for Critical Thinking.