ERIC Number: ED361889
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1993-Apr
Institutionalization of Change in a Period of Scarce Resources.
Martin, Judith L.; Peterson, Kent D.
This paper examines how three elementary schools used effective schools research to institutionalize the school-improvement process and identifies the types and levels of the resources they used. Each school--one in the upper midwest, one in the midwest, and one in the eastern United States--had been involved in a school-improvement process for over 4 years and had a significant number of either low-income or non-Anglo students. Data were derived from document analysis; student performance data; interviews with teachers, parents, and all levels of administrators; and followup telephone interviews. Findings indicate that although the schools did not have large reserves of financial resources to support their implementation efforts, they used a variety of resources. Four types of resources were identified--financial, time, intellectual, and psychosocial. The following common patterns of resource use were found: (1) some money was available if people asked and were willing to use it wisely; (2) only small amounts of money may be needed to get started if there is social cohesion in the school and training is provided by the district; (3) in some settings, people often refrained from requesting large budgets; (4) "good faith" money and donated time by the district and principal may energize others to give of themselves and their time; (5) support and trust are key psychosocial resources; and (6) additional resources may be necessary when schools implement larger restructuring efforts. (LMI)
Publication Type: Speeches/Meeting Papers; Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Note: Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (Atlanta, GA, April 12-16, 1993).