ERIC Number: ED361880
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1992
Reference Count: N/A
Leadership versus Control: A Strategic Approach to Lasting School Reform.
Smith, James R.
This handbook, based on an address given by James R. Smith, a former deputy superintendent of public instruction in the California State Department of Education, describes the elements of California's strategic approach for lasting school reform. The assertion is made that lasting, positive, and major changes in schools require that state policymakers develop the capacity for reform at the local level and free people at the school site to actually conduct the reform. A strategic planning model, as an alternative to reform implemented by control, consists of the following elements: communicate a clear vision; hold people accountable for results; and provide assistance to help produce the desired results. Specific techniques of strategic planning are described: (1) visualize the whole job; (2) contrast what is wanted with what is now occurring; (3) customize descriptions of the vision for various constituencies; (4) shape the rules; (5) provide incentives; (6) target activities as close to the teacher-student interaction as possible; (7) pull on all the levers; (8) build alliances; (9) seek a statewide payoff; and (10) use data. Two figures, one of which outlines the English language arts framework, are included. (LMI)
Descriptors: Accountability, Change Strategies, Educational Change, Educational Planning, Elementary Secondary Education, Long Range Planning, Middle Schools, Policy Formation, School Restructuring, State Action, Statewide Planning, Strategic Planning
Council of Chief State School Officers, One Massachusetts Ave, N.W., Suite 700, Washington, DC 20001 (free).
Publication Type: Reports - Descriptive; Guides - Non-Classroom
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: Council of Chief State School Officers, Washington, DC.
Identifiers - Location: California