ERIC Number: ED361402
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1993-Jun
Reference Count: N/A
Questioning Mechanisms during Tutoring, Conversation, and Human-Computer Interaction.
Graesser, Arthur C.
One-to-one tutoring is more effective than alternative training methods, yet there have been few attempts to examine the process of naturalistic tutoring. Dialogue patterns in tutoring were explored for the following 2 populations: 3 graduate students tutoring 25 college students in research methods, and 10 high school students tutoring 13 seventh graders. Pedagogical strategies, feedback mechanisms, question asking, question answering, and pragmatic assumptions were studied during the tutoring process. One pervasive dialogue pattern was a five-step frame: (1) tutor asks a question; (2) student answers a question; (3) tutor gives short feedback on answer quality; (4) tutor and student collaboratively improve answer quality; and (5) tutor assesses student understanding of the answer. Tutor questions were primarily motivated by curriculum, scripts, and the process of coaching students through exemplar problems. They were rarely motivated by attempts to diagnose and remediate the student's idiosyncratic knowledge deficits. Dialogue patterns were simulated by two computational models--a recurrent connectionist network, and a recursive transition network. These models capture the systematicity in the sequential ordering of speech act categories. Eight tables and three figures present study findings. Attachments list publications of the principal investigator and co-investigators during the grant period. (SLD)
Descriptors: Computer Assisted Instruction, Dialogs (Language), Educational Cooperation, Feedback, Grade 7, Graduate Students, High School Students, High Schools, Higher Education, Junior High School Students, Junior High Schools, Questioning Techniques, Remedial Instruction, Teacher Student Relationship, Teaching Methods, Tutoring, Tutors, Undergraduate Students
Publication Type: Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Sponsor: Office of Naval Research, Arlington, VA. Cognitive and Neural Sciences Div.
Authoring Institution: Memphis State Univ., TN. Office of Sponsored Programs.