ERIC Number: ED360704
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1993-Mar
Reference Count: N/A
Educational Policy-Making as Power Struggle in a Multi-Cultural Society: The Malaysian Case. Revised Draft.
Hsu, Philip, Jr.
This essay demonstrates how politics affected educational policy making at the national level in Malaysia. A historical and social overview describes the country's ethnic diversity and the passage of legislation that was designed to promote universal access to education. The government's higher education policies are evaluated, based on a process model of policy formation that includes the components of effectiveness, efficiency, legitimacy, and equity. From the standpoint of the Malaysian government, the higher education policies were successful in ensuring the Bumiputeras (Malays and other indigenous tribal groups) access to and representation in the universities, which reinforced the dominance of Malaysian culture. The government's higher education policies receive an "A" in effectiveness, a "B" in efficiency, a "B minus" in legitimacy, and an "F" in equity. New social injustices have been created by the Malaysian government as part of its effort to correct past injustices suffered by the Malaysians under colonial rule. Based on the above criteria, there is little evidence to support the claim that these higher education policies have been successful. The strategies to bring about greater cohesiveness and unity among the racial groups through a common language, curriculum, and learning experience have resulted in universities that are more polarized along ethnic lines than ever before. Educational policy making is a political process that reflects broader social ends that themselves reflect the interests and powers of different social groups. (Contains 12 references.) (LMI)
Publication Type: Speeches/Meeting Papers; Opinion Papers
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: Malaysia