ERIC Number: ED359090
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1992-Mar
Reference Count: N/A
Children's Participation: From Tokenism to Citizenship. Innocenti Essays No. 4.
Hart, Roger A.
The degree to which children should have a voice in anything is the subject of strongly divergent opinion. There are many examples of children who organize themselves successfully without adult help. Children need to know that along with any rights they have come certain responsibilities. Youth participation in decision making can range from manipulation by adults to child initiated, shared decisions with adults. Researchers can promote an active role for children through Participatory Action Research (PAR). The technique can empower children as research subjects by helping them learn about practical problems and themselves. Experience in the United Kingdom illustrates that children can participate effectively in community planning issues. Moreover, children's lives vary greatly in industrialized and developing countries. Even children in especially difficult circumstances, such as those living in industrialized countries, can be active in trying to improve their own lives. Through such participation children can develop social competence and responsibility, community development, and political self-determination. Schools provide the natural starting place for children's activism. A 25-item list of references is included. (LBG)
Descriptors: Activism, Childrens Rights, Citizenship, Community Involvement, Elementary Secondary Education, Foreign Countries, Social Change, Social Responsibility
UNICEF, International Child Development Centre, Piazza S.S. Annunziata 12, 50122 Florence, Italy ($4 U.S.).
Publication Type: Reports - Descriptive
Education Level: N/A
Audience: Teachers; Policymakers; Researchers; Practitioners
Authoring Institution: United Nations Children's Fund, Florence (Italy). International Child Development Centre.