ERIC Number: ED358310
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1989-Dec
Women in Management. Facts on Working Women No. 89-4.
Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.
Although more U.S. women hold management positions than at any other time, only an estimated 1 or 2% have made the breakthrough to top-level executive positions. In 1988, women in the United States represented 45% of the civilian labor force; however, they represented only 39.3% of all persons employed in managerial, executive, and administrative occupations. In 1988, women managers represented 10.8% of all employed women (up 6.3% from 10 years earlier). Of these women managers, 60.1% were married with a spouse present. Most were middle-aged. As of September 1988, women held 42.2% of the 2,125,148 nonpostal executive branch federal civilian jobs, 30.8% of professional jobs, and 37.1% of nonclerical administrative jobs. Women were more likely to be managers in areas where there were already more women employees at lower levels. The largest numbers of women managers (37.8%) were employed in the services industries. Black and Hispanic women represented 2.9 and 6.7% of all employed women managers, respectively. Growth in the number of managerial and management-related jobs through 2000 should provide increased employment opportunities for women who are prepared. (MN)
Publication Type: Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.