ERIC Number: ED357680
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1992-Feb
Expert Society: The Origins and Development of Professions in Sweden.
Studies of Higher Education and Research, n2 Feb 1992
This paper proposes a comprehensive model in which the emergence and growth of various professions in Sweden can be localized and better understood. An opening section offers some remarks about the problem of definition and delineation of the concept of "profession." This section defines professionals as carriers of abstract expert systems, enabling them to perform acts that are perceived as valuable (skilled, informative, helpful, profitable) and trustworthy by clients. The paper locates the professions in the wider context of class and stratification and then gradually narrows down the perspective by focussing on the specifics of Swedish professions as a special case of continental professional development. This section notes that in contrast to the "Anglo-American" countries, most of the professions of continental Europe have had the state as both educator, protector and main employer. This section also identifies four historical "take-offs" for specific kinds of professionals: (1) civil servants and state administrators, (2) engineers, (3) social service professionals, and (4) political professionals. The take-offs are linked to changes in one crucial determinant: variations in governmental forms and state policies. The result suggests that in continental social formations, the demand and needs of the state are a major precondition for professional evolution. (Contains 85 reference notes.) (JB)
Descriptors: European History, Higher Education, Middle Class, Professional Education, Professional Occupations, Professional Services, Social Class, Social History, Social Status
Council for Studies of Higher Education, P.O. Box 45501, S-104 30, Stockholm, Sweden.
Publication Type: Historical Materials; Collected Works - Serials
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: Council for Studies of Higher Education, Stockholm (Sweden).
Identifiers - Location: Sweden