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ERIC Number: ED357559
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1993-Feb
Pages: 30
Abstractor: N/A
Reference Count: N/A
A Longitudinal Perspective on Risk for Learning Disabilities.
Werner, Emmy E.
This report describes an ongoing longitudinal study in Kauai (Hawaii) begun in 1955, which is following the course of all births to adulthood and assessing the long-term consequences of perinatal complications and adverse child-rearing conditions. Specifically reported is a subset of data on 22 children (diagnosed as having learning disabilities by age 10) who were assessed at birth and again at ages 1, 2, 10, 18, and 32. The individuals with learning disabilities were found to have: (1) a higher proportion of perinatal complications and congenital defects, and poorer ratings by parents and pediatricians at ages 1 and 2; (2) significantly greater involvement between the ages of 10 and 18 with community agencies and special educational services, though only half received special assistance; (3) generally poor outcomes at age 18, with few differences between learning-disabled subjects who received or did not receive special services. However, by age 32, the life course of most subjects had considerably improved, with less than 10 percent having criminal records and/or mental health problems; marriage, divorce, and employment rates similar to those of the cohort as a whole (though 80 percent were employed in semi-skilled jobs); and none on public welfare. Possible protective factors were identified and grouped into four clusters: temperamental characteristics, skills, and values; characteristics and caregiving styles of the parents; presence of supportive adults; and opening of opportunities at major life transitions. (Contains 16 references.) (DB)
Publication Type: Reports - Research; Speeches/Meeting Papers
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: Hawaii