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ERIC Number: ED356933
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1985
Pages: 13
Abstractor: N/A
Reference Count: N/A
Historical Perspectives of Outdoor and Wilderness Recreation Programming in the United States.
Watters, Ron
This paper traces the history of outdoor programming beginning with the influence of western expansionism and the settling of the American frontier. The late 1800s brought about a change in the national attitude from an adversarial view of wilderness to a beneficial view. This was reflected by writers such as Henry David Thoreau and John Muir. Muir founded the Sierra Club, one of the first outdoor clubs organized for protecting the wilderness and enjoying the outdoors. During World War II, Kurt Hahn of Great Britain developed the Outward Bound program to help British sailors cope in survival situations. In 1962, Joshua Miner launched Outward Bound in the United States. Paul Petzoldt and Willie Unsoeld, two well-known mountaineers influenced by the philosophy of Outward Bound, respectively, founded two schools to train outdoor leaders and acted as national spokespersons for the wilderness recreation movement. College outdoor programs were appealing and grew rapidly throughout the 1960s. These programs, called "common adventurism", a name derived from an obscure legal term, differed from outdoor clubs in two respects: the program's activities were largely initiated by the participants and group decisions were made democratically. By the 1970s, wilderness recreation had reached an all-time boom that necessitated the implementation of minimal impact camping techniques and federal regulation of land use. Because accidents occur and will continue to occur in outdoor recreation, the legal profession will continue to play a role in shaping the character of outdoor programming. (LP)
Publication Type: Historical Materials; Reports - Descriptive; Speeches/Meeting Papers
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A