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ERIC Number: ED356544
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1992-Jun
Pages: 41
Abstractor: N/A
Reference Count: N/A
SD-D2 "Swadana" Upgrading Program [D2 PGSD Swandana]. Summary Preliminary Report, D2-PGSD Program Economic Aspects [and] Report on Study of Economic Aspects. Educational Policy and Planning Project.
Cobbe, James; Musa, Ibrahim
The first of the two reports contained in this document is a preliminary analysis, by Dr. James Cobbe, of the data collected on an extension of a study of the upgrading program for primary school (Sekolah Dasar, or SD) to Diploma Dua (D2) using the Swadana (fully self-financed) delivery system. The extension of the study covers the six current delivery systems in four provinces, focussing on the economic and financial concerns of SD teachers only. Average annual total out-of-pocket private costs for participants vary by program, age group, and province. For all of the programs, costs are being borne by the participants, with little help from outside sources. The rates of return for participants vary considerably with delivery system and with age and rank. As presently structured, the D2 program is in general not an attractive economic investment opportunity for SD teachers. The second report, by Dr. James Cobbe and Dr. Ibrahim Musa, summarizes in English those parts of the study of the Guru SD-D2 upgrading program that deal with the private costs and benefits to teachers of the Swadana program. A questionnaire covered three areas of expenditures of the program: direct, indirect, and additional costs. Data show that the Swadana program is a poor investment for teachers. Thus, some subsidy to all teachers in D2 programs would be necessary to complete upgrading of teachers in a reasonable amount of time. (JPT)
Publication Type: Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: Ministry of Education and Culture (Indonesia).; Agency for International Development (IDCA), Washington, DC.
Authoring Institution: Florida State Univ., Tallahassee. Learning Systems Inst.; Improving the Efficiency of Educational Systems Consortium.
Identifiers - Location: Indonesia