ERIC Number: ED355251
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1992-Dec
Reference Count: N/A
National Assessments in Europe and Japan. ERIC/TM Digest.
Shafer, Mary Morello
Examining testing practices in other countries can help formulate ideas and issues in establishing a national assessment system in the United States. Based on recent reports by the Office of Technology and Assessment and the National Endowment for the Humanities, this digest provides an overview of the national examinations in several European nations and Japan. In France and in Germany, the previously nationally standardized examination is no longer a single nationally comparable examination taken by all students for admission to universities. Both the French baccalaureate, developed in different forms to correspond to curricula, and the German "Abitur" rely on open-ended questions and, to some extent, oral examinations. In recent years, England and Wales have adopted what amounts to a national curriculum and a comprehensive assessment program. Japan uses a two-stage system for admission to universities, beginning with a standardized multiple-choice examination in five subject areas. Japanese universities then consider other factors, often including their own examinations, to admit applicants. This overview indicates that the following four issues must be considered in evaluating national testing programs: (1) examination uniformity; (2) choice of tests by students; (3) test formats; and (4) reporting methods and formats. (SLD)
Descriptors: British National Curriculum, College Admission, College Entrance Examinations, Comparative Analysis, Cross Cultural Studies, Educational Assessment, Elementary Secondary Education, Foreign Countries, Government School Relationship, Higher Education, Multiple Choice Tests, National Competency Tests, National Programs, Standardized Tests, Student Evaluation, Test Use, Testing Programs
American Institutes for Research, 3333 K Street, N.W., Suite 300, Washington, DC 20007 (free).
Publication Type: ERIC Publications; ERIC Digests in Full Text
Education Level: N/A
Sponsor: Office of Educational Research and Improvement (ED), Washington, DC.
Authoring Institution: ERIC Clearinghouse on Tests, Measurement, and Evaluation, Washington, DC.
Identifiers - Location: France; Germany; Japan; United Kingdom (England); United Kingdom (Wales); United States