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ERIC Number: ED354477
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1992-Dec
Pages: 19
Abstractor: N/A
Reference Count: N/A
Single-Subject Experimental Research: Rationale, Tenets, and Basic Designs.
McCormick, Sandra
Only a limited number of single-subject studies exist in the literacy field, despite the upsurge of such studies in a wide variety of disciplines. The phrase "single-subject" refers not so much to the number of subjects, but to the way the data are analyzed: each subject's responses are examined individually; they are not averaged with other members of an experimental or control group. Other important characteristics of single-subject experimental research are: (1) independent variables are directly manipulated; (2) interventions are planned and monitored; (3) baseline data is collected; (4) once intervention begins, only one independent variable at a time is manipulated; (5) variables are repeatedly and frequently measured; (6) standardized measurement conditions are used; (7) strong controls for internal validity are used; (8) maintenance measures are included; (9) generalization of effects is measured; and (10) external validity is established through replication. The designs that are among those most frequently used (and which provide the basis for more complex variations) are: reversal design (A-B-A and its variation A-B-A-B); multi-element design; and the multiple-baseline design. Familiarity with a variety of investigative procedures gives researchers greater control for answering research questions they wish to ask. (A table listing sources of information on single-subject experimental research and four figures illustrating the most common experimental designs are included.) (RS)
Publication Type: Speeches/Meeting Papers; Guides - Non-Classroom
Education Level: N/A
Audience: Researchers
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A