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ERIC Number: ED353777
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1983-Nov
Pages: 28
Abstractor: N/A
Reference Count: N/A
ISBN: N/A
ISSN: N/A
All Children in the Nordic Countries Should Be Bilingual--Why Aren't They?
Skutnabb-Kangas, Tove
Little data are available concerning the native languages of Scandinavian residents, other than the official languages, despite the linguistic diversity of the region. Foreign language teaching starts early in schooling, but there has been little study of actual language needs. Three basic program designs are available for teaching foreign languages, including: immersion, mixed classes of native and non-native majority-language speakers; and sheltered, maintenance, or native language medium instruction. Seven program design variations can be classified according to both language medium and social goals. Conditions affecting second language learning can also be classified according to both language medium and social goals. Conditions affecting second language learning can also be classified as affective (anxiety, motivation, self-confidence), cognitive/linguistic/social second-language-related (input adapted to student's level, input from peers outside school), and cognitive/linguistic/social native-language-related (adequate linguistic development in the native language, adequate background knowledge, and help from a bilingual teacher). Research on second language learning and teaching does not yet guide educational planning in Scandinavia, probably because of unacknowledged racism and conflict avoidance. (MSE)
Publication Type: Opinion Papers
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A